Shakh Tahir Qadri’s Fatwa Against Suicide Bombing and Terrorism

April 8, 2010 by · Leave a Comment 

(Conclusion of series–part five)

Shaykh-Tahir-Qadri

Chapter 1: The Meanings of Islām

1.    Islām is a Religion of Peace and Security
2.    Three grades of Islām
i.    Research on literal meanings of Islām
ii.    Research on literal meanings of Īmān
iii.    Research on literal meanings of Ihsān

Chapter 2: Forbiddance of the Muslims’ Massacre

Section 1: Honour of the Muslims’ Life and Property

1.    The dignity of a believer is greater than Ka‘ba’s
2.    Merely pointing a weapon towards a believer is prohibited
3.    The forbiddance of the Muslims’ mass killing and violence
4.    Prohibition of killing someone accepting Islām while fighting
5.    Becoming an accomplice to terrorists too is crime
6.    Those attacking mosques are the greatest wrongdoers

Section 2: The Punishment of torturing and killing Muslims

1.    Killing a Muslim is a greater sin than destroying the whole world
2.    Killing a human is like disbelieving
3.    The massacre of Muslims is a blasphemous act
4.    Like polytheism, murder too is the greatest wrong
5.    Bloodshed is the greatest of all crimes
6.    Those burning the Muslims by explosions and other means belong to Hell
7.    Those burning the Muslims are debarred from the fold of Islām
8.    No act of worship by the murderer of a Muslim is acceptable
9.    Those who torture the Muslims will face the torment of Hell

Section 3: Suicide is a Forbidden Act

1.    Forbiddance and prohibition of suicide
2.    Paradise is forbidden to a suicider
3.    Gist of the discussion

Chapter 3: Forbiddance of the Non-Muslims’ Massacre and Torturing

1.    Killing the non-Muslim citizens is forbidden
2.    Forbiddance of killing foreign delegates and religious leaders
3.    Retribution of Muslims and non-Muslims is the same
4.    Avenging a wrong done by a non-Muslim from others is forbidden
5.    Forbiddance of looting non-Muslim citizens
6.    Humiliating non-Muslim citizens is forbidden
7.    Protection of non-Muslim citizens from internal and external aggression

Chapter 4: Forbiddance of Terrorism against the Non-Muslims even during War

1.    Prohibition of the killing of non-Muslim women
2.    Prohibition of the killing of children of non-Muslims
3.    Prohibition of the killing of the aged non-Muslims
4.    Prohibition of the killing of non-Muslim religious leaders
5.    Prohibition of the killing of non-Muslim traders and the growers
6.    Prohibition of the killing of non-Muslim service personnel
7.    Prohibition of the killing of non-Muslim non-combatants
8.    Night Offensive against non-Muslims prohibited
9.    Burning of the inhabitants of non-Muslim war areas prohibited
10.    Breaking into the enemy houses and looting forbidden
11.    Damaging the enemy cattle, crops and properties forbidden

Chapter 5: Protection of the Non-Muslims’ Lives, Properties and Worship Places

Section 1: Protection of non-Muslim citizens during the Prophetic period and the Rightly Guided Caliphs’ Era

1.    The non-Muslim citizens’ protection in the days of the Holy Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him)
2.    The legal status of the protection of non-Muslims in the days of Abū Bakr Siddiq
3.    The legal status of the protection of non-Muslims in the days of ‘Umar
4.    The legal status of the protection of non-Muslims in the days of ‘Uthmān
5.    The legal status of the protection of non-Muslims in the days of ‘Ali
6.    The legal status of the protection of non-Muslims in the days of ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz

Section 2: Forbiddance of Enforcing One’s Belief and Annihilating Worship Places

1.    Complete freedom of holding fast to one’s religion and its practice
2.    Killing a non-Muslim and destroying his property due to religious differences is forbidden
3.    Safeguard of non-Muslims’ worship places is a practice of the Holy Prophet
4.    Safeguard of non-Muslims’ worship places is obligatory
5.    Annihilation of the non-Muslims’ worship places located in Muslim majority areas is prohibited

Section 3: Rules Concerning Basic Rights of the non-Muslim Citizens in an Islamic State

Chapter 6: Rebellion against the Muslim state, Administration and Governance Forbidden

Section 1: What is rebellion and who is a rebel? (terminology, definitions and signs)

1.    Lexical definition of rebellion
2.    Technical definition of rebellion
i.    Rebellion according to Hanafi school of thought
ii.    Rebellion according to Māliki jurists
iii.    Shafi‘i’s definition of rebellion
iv.    Rebellion in view of Hanbali school of thought
v.    Ja‘fariyya definition of rebellion
vi.    The view of contemporary scholars about defining rebellion
3.    Technical definition of fight and fighters
4.    Signs of rebels

Section 2: Gravity of the crime of rebellion and its punishment

1.    Why mutiny is a grave crime?
2.    The Holy Prophet condemned development of armed grouping against the Muslim majority
3.    Warning of the torment of Hell to the agitators of rebellion
4.    Judgment against biased slogans of miscreants
5.    Killing due to sectarian differences condemnable

Section 3: Legal status of killings against a corrupt government

1.    Forbiddance of rebellion against a government not explicitly idolatrous
2.    Raising arms against Muslims is an idolatrous act
3.    The legal and constitutional way of changing a corrupt government

Section 4: Edicts by the four Imāms and other eminent authorities of Umma against terrorism and rebellion

1.    Edict by Imām A‘zam Abū Hanifa about fighting against the terrorists
2.    Edict by Imām Mālik against the terrorists
3.    Edict by Imām Shafi‘i against the terrorist rebels
4.    Action and edict by Imām Ahmad ibn Hanbal against mutiny
5.    Edict by Imām Sufyān Thawri about rebellion
6.    Imām Tahawi’s edict against armed rebellion
7.    Imām Māwardi’s edict about rebellion
8.    Imām Sarkhasi’s edict: elimination of terrorists is essential
9.    Imām Kasāi’s edict: terrorists must be killed
10.    Imām Murghaināni’s edict: war should continue until the elimination of rebellion
11.    Imām Ibn Qudāma’s edict: the mutineers are disbelievers and apostates
12.    Imām Nawawi’s edict: consensus of Companions on killing the rebels
13.    Tātārkhāniyya’s edict: cooperate with the government against the terrorists
14.    Edict by Imām Ibrāhim ibn Muflih Hanbali: war against rebels is mandatory for the government
15.    Edict by ‘Allāma Zain ad-Din ibn Nujaim
16.    Edict by ‘Allāma al-Jaziri

Section 5: Edicts by contemporary Salafi scholars against rebels

1.    Terrorists are the Khawārij of our times: Nāir ad-Din al-Albāni
2.    Declaring Muslims to be disbelievers is a sign of Khawārij: Shaykh ‘Abdu’llāh ibn Bāz
3.    Terrorists of today are a gang of the ignorant: Shaykh Sālih al-Fawzān
4.    Terroristic activities are not Jihād: Mufti Nazir Husayn of Delhi
5.    Gist of the discussion

Chapter 7: The Khawārij Strife and Contemporary Terrorists

Section 1: The advent of Khawārij strife and their beliefs and ideologies

1.    Lexical and technical meanings
2.    The Khawārij strife in the light of the Holy Qur’ān
3.    The advent of the Khawārij disruption in the days of the Holy Prophet
4.    The ideological formation of the Khawārij disruption in the period of ‘Uthmān
5.    Start of Khawārij as a movement in ‘Alawi period
6.    The beliefs and ideologies of the Khawārij
7.    The psychology and mental state of the Khawārij
8.    How Khawārij would rouse religious sentiments for mind making
9.    The conspicuous innovations of Khawārij
10.    Research work of Imām Abū Bakr al-Ājurri

Section 2: The sayings of the Messenger of Allah about the Khawārij terrorists

1.    The terrorists would appear religious
2.    The Khawārij slogan would seem true to common man
3.    The Khawārij would use adolescents for terroristic activities after brainwashing
4.    The Khawārij would appear from the east
5.    The Khwarij would keep coming until the time of False Messiah
6.    The Khawārij will be absolutely debarred from the fold of Islām
7.    The Khawārij will be the dogs of Hell
8.    The religious appearance of Khawārij must not be mistaken
9.    The Khawārij are the worst of Creation

A noteworthy point

10.    The saying of the Holy Prophet: The decree to eliminate Khawārij strife

i.    Total elimination of Khawārij is mandatory
ii.    Important expositions of hadith Imāms
iii.    The underlying reason of resemblance with the people of ‘Ad and Thamūd for the elimination of the Khawārij
iv.    Great reward for killing the Khawārij
v.    Signs of the Khawārij terrorists – collective picture

Section 3: The expositions of Imāms on mandatory killing of the Khawārij and declaring them disbelievers

Edicts of Imāms on two known statements about declaring Khawārij the disbelievers

The first statement: application of the decree of disbelief to Khawārij

1.    Imām al-Bukhāri (256 AH)
2.    Imām Ibn Jarir at-Tabari (310 AH)
3.    Imām Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazāli (505 AH)
4.    Qādi Abū Bakr ibn al-‘Arabi (543 AH)
5.    Qādi ‘Iyād al-Māliki (544 AH)
6.    Imām Abu’I-‘Abbās al-Qurtubi (656 AH)
7.    ‘Allāma Ibn Taymiyya (728 AH)
8.    Imām Taqi ad-Din as-Subki (756 AH)
9.    Imām Shātibi al-Māliki (790 AH)
10.    Imām Ibn al-Bazzāz al-Kurdari al-Hanafi (827 AH)
11.    Imām Badr ad-Din al-‘Aini al-Hanafi (855 AH)
12.    Imām Ahmad bin Muhammad al-Qastalāni (923 AH)
13.    Mullā ‘Ali al-Qāri (1014 AH)
14.    Shaykh ‘Abd al-Haqq Muhaddith of Dehli (1052 AH)
15.    Shāh ‘Abd al-‘Aziz Muhaddith of Dehli (1229 AH)
16.    ‘Allāma Ibn ‘Abidin Shāmi (1306 AH)
17.    ‘Allāma ‘Abd ar-Rahmān Mubārakpūrī (1353 AH)

The second statement: application of the decree of rebellion to Khawārij

1.    Imām A‘zam Abū Hanifa (150 AH)
2.    Imām Shams ad-Din as-Sarkhasi (483 AH)
3.    Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalāni (852 AH)
4.    Imām Ahmad Radā Khān (1340 AH)

Reasons of hadith Imāms about consensus on killing the Khawārij

1.    Qādi ‘Iyād al-Māliki (544 AH)

2.    ‘Allāma Ibn Taymiyya (728 AH)
3.    Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalāni (728 AH)

Great reward for the troops fighting against the Khawārij terrorists

4.    Ibn Habirah

The standpoint of ‘Allāma Anwar Shāh Kashmiri and ‘Allāma Shabbir Ahmad ‘Uthmāni about the Khawārij

Section 4: Today’s terrorists are Khawārij

1.    Condemnation of the supporters of Khawārij
2.    Research work by Ibn Taymiyya about perpetuation of Khawārij
3.    The terrorists are the Khawārij of our times
4.    Important juristic issue: calling Khawārij as terrorists is based on the Qur’ān and Sunna, not independent reasoning

Chapter 8: Peaceful Way of Struggle in a Muslim State

1.    The Qur’ānic command to bid good and forbid evil
Collective struggle for commanding good and forbidding evil
2.    The command to bid good and forbid evil in Prophetic traditions
Three grades of preventing evil
The meaning of preventing evil physically
3.    Political and democratic struggle against injustice and oppression

Chapter 9: Call for Reflection and Reformation

Shakh Tahir Qadri’s Fatwa Against Suicide Bombing and Terrorism

March 25, 2010 by · Leave a Comment 

(Continuation from last week–part three)

Shaykh-Tahir-Qadri The conditions leading to forbiddance of rebellion in the light of the Quranic verses, Prophetic traditions and expositions of the jurists are evident. Referring to Holy Companions, their successors, Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Malik, Imam Shafai, Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal and other leading jurists, the fact has been brought to light that absolute consensus exists among all the leading jurists on total forbiddance of rebellion against Muslim state, and there is no difference of opinion between any schools of thought. Such a rebellion as challenges the writ of the state, and has been launched without the collective approval and sanction of society, is but a civil war, blatant terrorism and an obvious act of strife. It can never be called Jihad under any circumstances.

As for struggle to reform some impious Muslim ruler or state, that is not at all prohibited or disallowed. The forbiddance of rebellion and armed struggle should not mean at all that an evil should not be called an evil and no effort be made to stop its spread, or the obligation of faith to bid good and forbid evil be abandoned. Certification of truth and rejection of falsehood is binding upon Muslims. Likewise, seeking to reform society and fight off evil forces is one of the religious obligations. The adoption of all constitutional, legal, political and democratic ways to reform the rulers and the system of governance, and stop them from violation of human rights is not only lawful but also binding upon Muslims. Making efforts at individual and collective levels to establish truth, end reign of terror and oppression and restoration of a system of justice forms the part of obligations of faith.

5. The element of Khawarij is unforgettable in the history of terrorism. The question arises: who were Khawarij? What does the Islamic law ordain about them? Are the present day terrorists a continuation of Khawarij?

• The Khawarij were the rebels and apostates of Islam. Their advent took place during the period of the Prophethood (blessings and peace be upon him). Their intellectual growth and organized emergence took place in the Osmani and Alvi periods respectively. These Khawarij were so punctual and regular in performance of religious rituals and acts of worship that they would appear more pious than the holy Companions would at times. However, in keeping with the manifest command of the Holy Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him), they were absolutely out of the fold of Islam. The Khawarij would not only regard the killing of Muslims as lawful, reject the Companions for their disagreement with them, raise the slogan ‘there is no Command but Allah’s’, consider the launch of armed struggle and killing against Hazrat Ali (ra) as lawful, but would also keep on perpetrating these heinous actions. These Khawarij were in fact the first terrorist and rebellious group that challenged the writ of state and raised the banner of armed struggle against a Muslim state. The texts of Hadith clearly establish that such elements would continue to be born in every age. By Khawarij is not meant merely a group which took up arms against the rightly guided Caliphs, but it encompasses all those groups and individuals bearing such attributes, ideologies and terrorist way of action who would continue to rear their head and perpetrate terrorism in the name of Jihad till the Day of Judgment. Despite being almost perfectionist in the performance of manifest religious rituals, they would be considered as being out of the fold of Islam for their wrong and misplaced ideology. A Muslim state cannot be allowed to give them any concession in the name of dialogue or stop the military action without their complete elimination in the light of instructions of the Holy Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him). The only exception when they can be spared is that they lay down their arms, repent of their actions and vow to honour the state laws and writ of the Muslim state.

6. What are the measures that the government and the ruling classes should take to put an end to mischief-mongering, terrorist activities and the armed strife?
• The government and the law enforcing agencies should, at the outset, remove those stimulants and all the factors that contribute to make the common man a victim of doubt. Due to these factors, the ringleaders and the chieftains of terrorism snare the sentimental youths very easily in their trap, change their track and lead them to militancy. Exploiting their sentiments, they prepare them for terrorist activities. The policies, events and circumstances the terrorist elements use as fuel for their evil agenda need to be remedied and set right on priority. That will certainly help eradicate the root causes of the spread of plague. Similarly, if the world powers as well as Pakistani agencies fail in attending to the real hardships of people, removing their complaints and abandoning the deceptive policies, the restoration of real peace will remain merely a dream.

7. Another important question under inquiry in various circles of society refers to a dilemma: can we justify as lawful the atrocities of terrorism if they are done with the intention to promote Islam and secure the rights of the Muslims?

• The Khawarij, even today, invoke Islam and raise slogan to establish the Divine Order, but all of their actions and steps constitute a clear violation of Islamic teachings. When their supporters do not have any legal argument to defend the actions of Khawarij, they draw the attention of people to the vices of the ruling elites and oppression of the imperialist forces as a justification for their killing. They feel contented that though the terrorists are doing wrong things, their intention is good beyond any doubt. This is a major intellectual faux pas and people, both educated and uneducated, suffer from this doubt. An evil act remains evil in all its forms and contents. Whatever way we may interpret injustice, it is going to remain the same. Therefore, no forbidden action can ever become a virtuous and lawful deed due to goodness of intention. Law in Islam applies to an action. Massacre of humanity, perpetration of oppression and cruelty, terrorism, violence and bloodshed on earth and armed rebellion and strife cannot become pardonable actions due to any good intention or pious conviction. Nor is there any space for deviation from this fundamental principle. Thus, this argument of terrorists and their well-wishers is also false in the sight of Islamic law. Therefore, we commence our arguments with the clarification of the same dilemma that an evil doing cannot change into a pious deed due to any pious intention it supposedly generates from.

Good intention can never change a vice into virtue

If some good intention motivates bloodshed and massacre, the question arises whether tyranny and barbarism can be declared lawful on this basis. Some people think that though suicide explosions are atrociously evil, killing of innocent people too is a monstrous crime, spreading mischief and strife in the country is again a heinous act, while destruction of educational, training, industrial, commercial and welfare centers and institutions is still a greater sin, the suicide bombers are doing that with good intention and pious motive. Therefore, they are justified. They are retaliating foreign terrorism against Muslims. They are doing a Jihad. So, they cannot be given any blame.

In this brief discussion, we shall analyze this thought in the light of the Quran and Sunna. The Quran rejected as disbelief the idol-worship that was perpetrated with the intention to attain to nearness of Allah. We find a detailed account of this matter in the Quran and Sunna. Some of the holy verses are produced here to facilitate comprehension of the issue.

– to be continued –

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Islam in Haiti

January 28, 2010 by · Leave a Comment 

By Geoffrey Cook, MMNS

haiti Haiti is a benighted country that your author knows well having made working journeys there, and serving on a Committee in my home State of California to support that nation in her struggles (the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere) for over a decade now. 

The information your essayist is to relay was a surprise to me, too, although I had intended to write about a slave rebellion that a Muslim led during the early history of Creole Hispaniola for the Observer a year and a half ago, but I could not trace the references down even in the largest academic library in Western North America which is literarily down the street from me.  With the Internet, though, I have been able to trace the history and condition of the religion on the western half of that nation’s island.

Islam came at the earliest period of the then Colony by the importation of slaves from Sub-Saharan Africa.  As the current distressing rioting in Nigeria between Christians and Muslims demonstrates, there is a significant population of Muslims from West Africa.  From an historian’s point of view, the fact that the middle men in the slave trade were Arabs (Muslims) is most disturbing.

Much of the early accounts are confused by 200 years of oral tradition (many times relayed memory), legend and mythology.  There are two mangled accounts of rebellion, but they were in another French isle in the Caribbean, Martinique, that became associated with the Haitians.  One says that the leader still wanders around Saint-Dominique, as Haiti was called then.  This is no more than mythology.

Many Muslim slaves from West Africa were forcibly baptized, but there is a belief that the Maroons (any group of slaves descended from fugitive slaves from the Seventeenth through Eighteenth Centuries) mainly held onto their Islamic beliefs.  One such slave, Dutta Boukman, who was smuggled in from Jamaica, received his name because he could read, and his French masters reported he read upside down which indicated he most likely was reading Arabic and, at that, feasibly, the Koran.  This description is an unquestionable fact although legend claims he was a Voo-Doo priest, but “revisionist” Haitian scholarship suspects that he was a Muslim.  Nonetheless, his death by decapitation in a 1791 rebellion, which he commanded, raised the demand, again, that led for freedom and the finally successful Black Haitian Revolution for Independence in which the Muslims, who were instrumental in that War,  spoke Arabic to confuse their enemies!

Before Dutta, another Maroon leader, a Marabout warrior in the Islamic tradition, François Macandal, too, attempted a rebellion, but was burned ghastly at the stake in 1758.  The Mandingos, a distinct linguistic group, from West Africa, provided much of the leadership during the Haitian Revolution, and many of them were most definitely Muslims.              

Islam had a vital impact at the birth of the Republic, and now it is beginning to assert itself once again.  Various estimates are that the Muslim population in this Creole motherland is between 3500 and 7000.  Most of the adherents to the faith live in Port-au-Prince earlier this month, where the majority of the death and destruction befell and the Mosquee Al-Fatiha stands (stood?), and the Bilal Mosque and an Islamic Center in the second largest city in the country, Cap Haitian, on the north coast is situated. (Cap Haitian, fortunately, was not impacted as much.)  There are other places of worship locally maintained throughout the land mass although your writer has not been able to confirm the comprehensive condition of the community after the disaster on January 12th. 

In the 1920s an influx of Arab immigrants entered Haiti from the Middle East – especially from Morocco although ethnically the largest of the Haitian Muslim population today are indigenous to their Caribbean country.  Your researcher did trace down some individual North American Muslims, but not their demographics within the populace.  Being an impoverished mixed assemblage, they were not able to construct their first Mosque until 1985.  It was a built from a converted residence.  The first minaret was built in 2000.  Whether that minaret is standing has not been determined by your journalist, also.

Politically, the first Muslim to enter the Chamber of Deputies (i.e., their Congress) was Nawoon Marcellus on the Fanmi Lavalas ticket, the Left-leaning party led by President Aristide. 

Your writer, who has gotten encouraging press releases from Islamic charities benefiting the citizens irrespective of belief, it is important to know that your Zakat is, further giving succor to your Muslim brothers and sisters.  The figures (0.4of the population) and institutions your writer has mentioned may have drastically been decimated.  After the situation has been solidified, rebuilding this small but burgeoning religious society remains.

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